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Raket Motor Brandstof

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Solid Rocket Boosters Space Shuttle:

The rocket propellant mixture in each solid rocket motor consisted of ammonium perchlorate (oxidizer, 69.6% by weight), atomized aluminum powder (fuel, 16%), iron oxide (catalyst, 0.4%), PBAN (binder, also acts as fuel, 12.04%), and an epoxy curing agent (1.96%).[9][10] This propellant is commonly referred to as Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellant, or simply APCP. This mixture gave the solid rocket motors a specific impulse of 242 seconds (2.37 km/s) at sea level or 268 seconds (2.63 km/s) in a vacuum.

Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid rocket propellant used in both manned and unmanned rocket vehicles. It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants such as black powder or Zinc-Sulfur, not only in chemical composition and overall performance, but also by the nature of how it is processed. APCP is cast into shape, as opposed to powder pressing as with black-powder. This allows for manufacturing regularity and repeatability which are necessary requirements for use in the aerospace industry.

JAXA describe the fuel as "HTPB/AP/Al=12/68/20" which means, proportioned by mass, HTPB 12% (binder and fuel), Ammonium perchlorate 68% (oxidizer), and Aluminium powder, 20% (fuel).

Casing

The casing may be constructed from a range of materials. Cardboard is used for model rocket motors. Steel is used for the space shuttle boosters. Filament wound graphite epoxy casings are used for high performance motors.

Amateur rocketry

Solid fuel rockets can be bought for use in model rocketry; they are normally small cylinders of fuel with an integral nozzle and a small charge that is set off when the fuel is exhausted. This charge can be used to ignite a second stage, trigger a camera, or deploy a parachute. Designing solid rocket motors is particularly interesting to amateur rocketry enthusiasts. The design is simple, materials are inexpensive and constructions techniques are safe. Early amateur motors were gunpowder. Later, zinc/sulfur formulations were popular. Typical amateur formulations in use today are: sugar (sucrose, dextrose, and sorbitol are all common)/potassium nitrate, HTPB (a rubber like epoxy)/magnesium/ammonium nitrate, and HTPB or PBAN/aluminum/ammonium perchlorate (APCP). Most formulations also include burn rate modifiers and other additives, and also possibly additives designed to create special effects, such as colored flames, thick smoke, or sparks.

Buskruit / Black Powder

Black Powder and grains
Zwartkruit, buskruit of Black Powder is een korrelig mengsel van:
• een nitraat, meestal kaliumnitraat (KNO3), dat zuurstof levert voor de reactie.
• houtskool, die koolstof en andere brandstof voor de reactie levert, vereenvoudigd als koolstof (C).
• zwavel (S), die weliswaar ook als brandstof dient, maar de temperatuur verlaagt die nodig is om het mengsel te doen ontbranden, waardoor de verbrandingssnelheid toeneemt.

De belangrijkste rol van zwavel in buskruit is het verlagen van de ontstekingstemperatuur.
De zwavel en de houtskool fungeren als brandstof, terwijl de salpeter een oxidatiemiddel is.

Buskruit brandt niet als een enkele reactie, dus de bijproducten zijn niet gemakkelijk te voorspellen. Een studie toonde aan dat het (in volgorde van afnemende hoeveelheden) 55,91% vaste producten produceerde:
• kaliumcarbonaat,
• kaliumsulfaat,
• kaliumsulfide,
• zwavel,
• kaliumnitraat,
• kaliumthiocyanaat,
• koolstof,
• ammoniumcarbonaat

en 42,98% gasvormige producten:
• kooldioxide,
• stikstof,
• koolmonoxide,
• waterstofsulfide,
• waterstof,
• methaan,
• 1,11% water.

Vereenvoudigde reactievergelijking:
10KNO3 + 8C + 3S -> 2K2CO3 + 3K2SO4 + 5 N2 + 6 CO2
òf:
2KNO3 + 3C + S -> K2S + 3CO2 + N2

Zwavel vrije reactievergelijking (rookzwak=minder rook):
6 KNO3 + C7H4O → 3 K2CO3 + 4 CO2 + 2 H2O + 3 N2

De volumevergrotingsfactor is 5100.
Links in de reactievergelijkingen staan vaste stoffen, die dus weinig volume innemen. Rechts in de reactievergelijkingen staan gassen, die dus meer volume innemen. Het zijn die uitstromende gassen die een modelraket/projectiel voortstuwen.

Aerotech modelraket motoren

Model rocket motor, high power rocket motor, hobby rocket motor, composite rocket motor, rocket motor kit, rocket motor reloading kit, containing varying amounts of solid propellant with the trade names White Lightning™, Blue Thunder™, Black Jack™, Black Max™, Redline™, Warp-9™ or Mojave Green™.
These products contain varying percentages of:
Ammonium Perchlorate, Strontium, and/or Barium Nitrate
dispersed in synthetic rubber with lesser amounts of proprietary ingredients such as burn rate modifiers and metal fuels.

Rocket motor ejection charges contain black powder.

Section 2. Physical Characteristics:

Black plastic cylinders or bags with various colored parts, little or no odor
Section 3. Physical Hazards:

Rocket motors and reload kits are flammable; rocket motors may become propulsive in a fire. All propellants give off varying amounts of Hydrogen Chloride and Carbon Monoxide gas when burned, Mojave Green propellant also produces Barium Chloride.

Estes modelraket motoren

Engines containing 30 grams or less propellant
(Estes ¼ A through D) classified as:
Model Rocket Motor, NA 0323, Div. 1.4S, PG II
Shipped via the United States Postal Service via Surface Mail Only as:
Toy Propellant Devices
Shipped Internationally per Competent Authority USG as:
Articles pyrotechnic, UN 0432, Div. 1.4S, PG II

Engines containing more than 30 grams but no more than 62.5 grams of propellant
(Estes E and larger) classified as:
Model Rocket Motor, NA 0276, Div. 1.4C, PG II
Nonmailable via the United States Postal Service
Shipped Internationally per Competent Authority USG as:
Cartridges, power devices, UN 0276, Div. 1.4C, PG II

All Estes Model Rocket Engines May Be Shipped Domestically per DOT – SP 7887 (Previously DOT – E 7887) as:
Flammable solid, organic, n.o.s., (Model rocket kits containing motors with or without un-installed igniters), UN 1325, Div. 4.1, PG II

Zwartkruit motoren op basis van Kaliumnitraat, Zwavel en Houtskool.
Bindmiddel: Dextrine.

Propellant and Delay consists of:
Potassium Nitrate (Saltpeter), CAS 7757-79-1, 70-75%
Sulfur, CAS 7704-34-9, 10-15%
Charcoal, CAS 16291-96-6, 10-15%
(Een CAS-nummer is een unieke numerieke identifier voor chemische elementen, componenten, polymeren, en legeringen. CAS staat voor Chemical Abstracts Service, een divisie van de American Chemical Society.)

Solubility
in Water Soluble

Appearance and Odor:
Kraft paper cylinder with light gray clay at ends, one end has a small orifice with black material inside. Sulfur odor.

Section IV – Fire and Explosion Hazard Data Flash Point:
Auto-ignition temperature 540° F (282° C)

Extinguishing Media:
Water only – other extinguishers ineffective as engines produce their own oxygen.

Special Fire Fighting Procedures:
Flood with water to prevent fire spread. If engines become involved in fire withdraw from area.

Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazard:
When ignited model rocket engines may become propulsive but do not explode.

Section V – Reactivity Data:
Stability: Stable - Avoid sparks, open flame and high temperatures
Combustion Byproducts – Include carbon monoxide, hydrogen, sulfur, potassium, potassium sulfide and potassium hydroxide

Section VII – Precautions for Safe Handling:
Steps to Be Taken in Case material is Released or Spilled
Model rocket engines are devices in a solid state. Simply pick up and place in containers approved for storage and transport. Wipe up any dust with wet cloths.

Waste Disposal Method:
Small Quantity – Soak in water until engine disintegrates. Then dispose of remnants in an ordinary manner.
Large Quantity – In accordance with local, state and federal regulations

Klima modelraket motoren

Witkruit motoren op basis van Kaliumperchloraat en Natriumbenzoaat.

Composition/information on ingredients

Substance name: potassium perchlorate (Kaliumperchloraat)
Index-No: 017-008-00-5
EG-No: 231-912-9
CAS-No: 7778-74-7
Molecuulformule: KClO4
KClO4 is een oxidatiemiddel in die zin dat het exothermisch zuurstof overdraagt aan brandbare materialen, waardoor hun verbrandingssnelheid ten opzichte van die in de lucht sterk toeneemt.

Substance name: sodium benzoate (Natriumbenzoaat)
Index-No: --
EG-No: 208-534-8
CAS-No: 532-32-1
E-nummer: E211
Molecuulformule: C6H5COONa (NaC7H5O2)
Natriumbenzoaat is het natriumzout van benzoëzuur.
Het wordt vooral gebruikt als conserveermiddel dat de groei van gisten, bacteriën en schimmels tegengaat. Echter alleen als de pH lager is dan 3,6, zoals in sambal, jam, frisdranken en vruchtensappen. Ook aan augurken en sauzen wordt natriumbenzoaat vaak toegevoegd. In cosmetica wordt het met name in zure shampoo, douchegel en lotions gebruikt.

Naast het gebruik als conserveermiddel wordt natriumbenzoaat onder meer gebruikt in vuurwerk, in combinatie met kaliumperchloraat of kaliumchloraat geeft het in een open buisje het bekende fluitende geluid.

Quest modelraket motoren